This section contains various food charts such as food storage, meat temperatures, metric conversion, food pyramid and spice charts.

Equivalents

It is helpful to know how much food or fresh produce to buy when preparing a recipe. As an example, a recipe may call for 1 Cup of carrots. By using the following chart you can see that you will need approximately 2 medium carrots to equal 1 Cup.pears

Apple – 1 medium = 1 Cup sliced, or 2/3 Cup chopped
Banana – 1 medium = 1/3 Cup mashed or ¾ Cup sliced
Green Beans – 1 pound = 3 to 3 ½ Cups, chopped
Blueberries – 1 pound = 3 Cups
Broccoli – 1 pound = 4 Cups
Cabbage  - 1 medium head = 7 to 10 Cups shredded or 6 Cups coarsely chopped
Carrot – 1 medium = ½ Cup
Cauliflower – 1 medium head = 6 Cups
Celery – 1 stalk = ½ Cup
Chocolate Chips – 6 ounces = 1 Cup

Read more: Equivalents

Food Safety Temperatures

Use a food thermometer to make sure that the food you cook reaches the correct internal temperature to insure safety. The food must reach a high enough temperature to kill any harmful bacteria.

The following temperatures are recommended by the USDA:

Hamburger, meat loaf, ground pork, veal and lamb – 160° F
Beef, lamb and veal steaks, chops and roasts – Medium Rare 145°  F  Medium 160° F  Well done-170° F
Pork chops, ribs and roasts – 160° F
Egg dishes – 160° F
Ground turkey and chicken – 165° F
Stuffing and casseroles – 165° F
Leftovers – 165° F
Chicken and turkey breasts – 170° F
Chicken and turkey whole, legs, thighs and wings – 180° F
Duck and goose – 180° F
Fish – 145° F
Ham, whole or half, cooked – 140° F
Ham, unpackaged or leftover – 165° F
Cook before eating Hams or Fresh Hams – 160° F
Hot Dogs – 165° F

Measurements

Teaspoons and Tablespoons

Dash or Pinch = less than 1/8 teaspoon
1 1/2 Teaspoons = 1/2 Tablespoon
3 Teaspoons = 1 Tablespoon = 1/2 Fluid Ounce
2 Tablespoons = 1/8 Cup
4 Tablespoons = 1/4 Cup
5 1/3 Tablespoons = 1/3 Cup
8 Tablespoons = 1/2 Cup
10 2/3 Tablespoons = 2/3 Cup
12 Tablespoons = 3/4 Cup
16 Tablespoons = 1 Cup

Cups

1/8 Cup = 2 Tablespoons
1/4 Cup = 4 Tablespoons
1/3 Cup = 5 1/3 Tablespoons
1/2 Cup = 8 Tablespoons
2/3 Cup = 10 2/3 Tablespoons
3/4 Cup = 12 Tablespoons
1 Cup = 16 Tablespoons = 1/2 Pint = 8 Fluid Ounces
2 Cups = 1 Pint = 16 Fluid Ounces
4 Cups = 2 Pints = 1 Quart = 32 Fluid Ounces
16 Cups = 4 Quarts = 1 Gallon =128 Fluid Ounces

Pints, Quarts, Gallons and Pounds

1/2 Pint = 1 Cup = 8 Fluid Onnces
1 Pint = 2 Cups = 16 Fluid Ounces
1 Quart = 4 Cups = 32 Fluid Ounces
1 Gallon = 4 Quarts = 16 Cups
1/4 Pound = 4 Ounces
1/2 Pound = 8 Ounces
3/4 Pound = 12 Ounces
1 Pound = 16 Ounces